how brain cell works in the body

A recent study by the Stanford research team has concluded that the immune cells send muscle injury signal to activate stem cell regeneration.

Immune cells activate cells for muscle regeneration and repair which will aid in treating muscle disorders. Studies indicate that a gene Adamts 1 gets switched on in these cells. This is a secret protein that activates satellite cells in case of muscle injury.

But the Adamts 1 does not appear to produce the protein at the injury. There is a white blood cell called macrophage (literally means eaters) which is responsible in producing the protein at the injury site. They travel to the wound and keep it clean and healthy by eating bacteria, the dead cells and viruses. They also release protein to alert the immune system to fight the infection.

While cleaning the wound it also signals the muscle to regenerate. The Adamts 1 also nips a protein known as NOTCH which is found on the satellite cell surface. NOTCH indicates to the satellite cell to stay dormant. When Adamts 1 destroys NOTCH, the satellite cell gets activated, and starts to divide and transform into muscle cells.

There is a direct link between the cells that clean the injury and they also signal it to start regenerating and rebuilding the muscle that was destroyed. This facet is present only in the uninjured muscles.

Macrophages release Adamts 1 which nips the protein of the NOTCH which keeps them in a restful stage. When NOTCH is deactivated the cells start making new muscle.

Mice that have been tested for this Adamts 1 have shown a curious case. It is seen that they have more muscle damage and the muscle stem cells reduce over time and Adamts 1 becomes less capable of repairing the damaged muscle. More importantly it is just one cell that is able signal to the muscle stem cells and stimulate it to differentiate muscle.

These cells are also called muscle stem cells. These lay inactive and only come into action when there is an injury and damage from it. The satellite cell function breaks down due to aging and diseases like muscular dystrophy. These satellite cells drastically reduce in number and also cannot divide any longer which leads to muscle degeneration.

The research also says that this plays an important role in its activation. The study gives a deep understanding of muscle regeneration, and repair that will help in the development of new treatments for various muscle disorders.

Previous studies on a gene called Adamts 1 suggest that it is turned on strongly in the activated satellite cells than the dormant satellite cells. Most important is the fact that a single protein is enough to send a signal to the muscle stem cells and stimulate them and they can differentiate muscles. This makes it a natural mechanism which can be manipulated to help support the efforts of healing and building therapies to improve health drastically.
Your health is your wealth. A healthy man is a wealthy man, literally. You may think of a tycoon who owns so much material wealth but their health troubles them. What is the point of all the material wealth if you cannot enjoy it? The money spent on doctors could have been channelled in other better avenues. Similarly, ever thought of how quick an employee gets replaced at work? You probably fell ill or a colleague passed on. The job vacancy goes up no sooner than the bad news leaves your mind.

Therefore, it is important that you take care of your health. It is with this in mind, we have noted down these health tips. There are simply recommendations. We are free to do more or less, as per what we desire.

1. Drink Water

This may sound cliché but it is very important. Top of the list in good health tips to practise is staying hydrated. The human body functions mainly on water. Take a person who is fasting, they can do away with food but they are allowed to take water. Water keeps you alert and keeps your body functional. At times, people have headaches simply because of dehydration. However, most people are quick to take paracetamol tablets. It is recommended that you take between 6 - 8 glasses of water every day. Stay hydrated and you definitely will remain rejuvenated.

2. Work out

Among daily health tips that we should not compromise is working out. Now, you don't need to have a gym membership. Life is not as complicated. We all want to have the gym membership but what if you don't? You can simply buy a skipping rope and put in the cardio at home. Get a comfortable pair of trainers and have a morning or evening run. If that's too much, walk. If you own a pet, this can be ideal timing for you to bond.

3. Meditate

The career woman today has so much going on in her daily activities. She ought to be a wife at home, mother and deliver at work. It is very easy to lose yourself when so much is expected of you. Among the health tips for women would be embracing meditation. Most people say they don't have time for such but if it is important, you find time for it. Take time alone and just get lost in your positive thoughts. Visualize or even take part in yoga. You take control of your emotional health particularly which is very important.

4. Sleep well

Sleep is a very debatable subject. Some people prescribe 8 hours of sleep while others prescribe 6 hours. In the same line of thought, you hear of very successful people who sleep for 4 hours and are very functional. Therefore, my recommendation is sleep well. It is not the quantity but quality of sleep that counts. If you sleep for 10 hours and it's a noisy place, you won't rest well. You can however sleep for 2 hours in a very serene environment and get up very energetic. It is the quality that counts, not the quantity.

A power nap in the afternoon is said to keep one youthful. I don't know how true it is but there could be truth to it. What I know is that when you feel sluggish in the afternoon, a power nap goes a long way. There is no point of dragging through your tasks yet you can just sleep for ten minutes and be rejuvenated. However, do not be a serial afternoon sleeper and call it a power nap. That is outright laziness.

5. Eat well

Among the good health tips to practise on a daily is your diet. Having a balanced diet is very important. Your body will not lack anything. Similarly, with food it is the quality and not quantity that matters. You may eat so much but your body will only take up what it needs. That roast beef can be very tempting but your body will only take up the amount of protein needed. Just have the appropriate serving for you. What is not used up ends up being fat in your body.

6. Laugh more

As absurd as it sounds, this is the easiest good health tip you can utilise. We live in a world where everybody is focused on getting things done. People no longer savour the taste of good food. People can't smell well brewed coffee. It is sad. People's moods are at an all time low. To avoid this, just afford a good laugh each day. Find humour in the little things. If laughing is tedious, smile. You never know who you will smile at and they will have a great day just because of your smile.

7. Socialise

Perhaps you are wondering what this means? In the office setting, people don't necessarily socialise. Everyone is doing what brought them there and are quick to head home as soon as they are done. Not many people would say they are close to their colleagues. We don't know what challenges our colleagues may be facing at home. Similarly, people don't know if you have challenges.

It is a great daily health habit to socialise especially with your loved ones. Make time to be with your family. This is perfect to get away from the hustle of making a living. Through family and loved ones, you get to appreciate what life has to offer. You count your blessings and just soak in each moment.

Leading a healthy lifestyle is an option each of us can make. It can be challenging however, since not many people appreciate healthy living. Or maybe they do, they are just not willing to put in the work. Therefore, be the agent of change. You can exemplify what healthy living is like. If you don't practise any of the above daily healthy habits, there is hope. Just practise with one. Increase your water intake or just sleep a bit better. With time, you will reap the benefits.

I can almost guarantee that if you've taken any sort of health class, no matter if it was voluntary or forced by your high school, you've learned all about a balanced diet. You've found the importance of figuring out a way to have your cake and eat healthy too.

When it comes to a healthy lifestyle, I find it important to work out once a day and eat healthy throughout the work week. Let's be honest, the thought of a strict no carb diet is dreadful, and how many times can we actually say it's something we've followed through with? I know for me, the word diet and the thought of a dramatic change are too intimidating to even think about. Instead, I've reverted to a lifestyle with a balanced routine.

As for working out, I have given myself the goal of sweating for at least 30 minutes a day. It gives me the "I did something good for myself" feeling with the "OK I can do this" mentality. I chose 30 minutes a day because it's not only doable but it's also exciting to think I get to set aside a half hour to be with myself, my music, and not care about what everyone else is doing.

Similar to my workout regimen, I have set a limit to going out only on the weekends, except if there's a special occasion. Alcohol consumption is tough on the body and paired with the loss of sleep can cause you to eat more and turn into a cycle of unhealthy chaos. I learned the importance of this balance by first cutting out alcohol altogether, only to experience the pendulum swing to the more common side of casual and social alcohol intake. It took me a while to develop an understanding of how my body reacts to certain spirits, and how often I can drink without putting a damper on the next few days.

For me, finding a balance between dining out and eating in has been nothing short of difficult. From my friends asking me if I want to go to dinner or the thought of not wanting to cook, finding moderation here is tough. Throughout college, I found it difficult to say no to going out to eat because it was social and I was exhausted from my day. However, once I began to meal prep, the game changed for the better. I started to give myself limits once again and told myself if I ate in at least three nights a week, I could go out to dinner on the weekends without feeling guilty.

Balance in life is difficult to find, through the hectic demands of work and the little time we have left for ourselves at the end of the day, I have found it important to balance the few parts we have control of.

There are about 2 million Americans who suffer from Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) annually. The severity of the trauma may differ from patient to patient but leads to a wide range of motor, behavioral, cognitive as well as intellectual disabilities in the patients. These disabilities may be long term or short term. TBI is a global health concern and despite the huge number of injuries, the treatment options are limited.

There have been many treatments and studies that suggested excessive burst of new brain cells after TBI helped in the recovery of the patients better. Breaking this common assumption, Dr. Viji Santhakurmar (Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University) and her colleagues proved otherwise with their report. They challenged this assumption and found that an excessive neurogenesis may, in fact, lead to memory decline, seizures.

Neurogenesis aftera a Brain Injury May Lead to Memory Decline, Seizures

It has been proposed that increase in neurogenesis aids in the repair of the injured brain network. However, survivors of a traumatic brain injury often develop life-changing disorders such as a decrease in memory as well as epileptic seizures.

Researchers found there was a considerate increase in the new nerve cell growth (neurogenesis) that was probably to help replace the damaged or destroyed brain cells. However, Santhakumar and her colleagues found evidence contradictory to the popular belief. They found the spike in brain cell growth may, in fact, lead to post-injury seizures and long-term memory decline.

This team from Reuters University examined brain injuries in lab rats and found that brain cells at the injury site play an important role. These cells double in number within 3 days after injury; however, they decrease by more than half after a month as compared to rats with no brain injury. The neural stem cells develop into mature cells too showed a similar increase and decrease pattern. Thus, proving they were responsible for the loss of brain cells.

As quoted by Professor Viji Santhakumar in a press release, "There is an initial increase in birth of new neurons after a brain injury but within weeks, there is a dramatic decrease in the normal rate at which neurons are born, depleting brain cells that under normal circumstances should be there to replace damaged cells and repair the brain's network. The excess new neurons lead to epileptic seizures and could contribute to cognitive decline. It is normal for the birth of new neurons to decline as we age. But what we found in our study was that after a head injury the decline seems to be more rapid."

According to the study, post-injury changes in the development of new cells along with the neural precursor cell proliferation led to a long-term decline in the neurogenic capacity. When the post-injury neurogenesis was reduced early on resulted in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility.

To achieve this goal of slowing down nerve cell growth after injury, researchers used anti-cancer drugs that are under clinical trials currently. These drugs are known to block the growth and survival of new nerve cells. The drugs were able to stop the rapid proliferation of the nerve cells and prevented the long-term decline in brain cells that lead to memory decline in lab rats. It also showed the rats had reduced risk of seizures after administration of these drugs.

Dr. Santhakumar says that they believe in limiting the process of rapid growth of nerve cells will prove to be helpful in stopping the seizures after a brain injury.

These findings spark hope for those with TBI that one day these methods will definitely help in reducing the short-term and long-term symptoms that alter the life of the patients after a challenging injury to the brain.

So far, we have got to know about the positive applications of these therapies, which are transplanted into the body with living cells to treat, or eliminate the disease from the patient's body. The most common type of cell therapy is the hematopoietic therapy. Harvested from the donor's body for the host to develop bone marrow, it is a well-known cell based therapy, with its self-renewal and differentiation capabilities into many cell types.

Stem cell based therapies have the potential to treat numerous disorders, especially blood and immune related disorders. A wide range of these therapies including allogenic cell therapies, autologous therapies, and mesenchymal these therapies has shown a major breakthrough for curing many medical conditions such as sclerosis, spinal cord injury, diabetes and strokes in the clinical trials. More recently, we have the boon of induced pluripotent stem cells, having the same characteristic as adult embryonic stem cells that can be cultured to produce embryonic stem cells. These cells are important for another key reason- tissue engineering.

Over the last few decades, cell therapies have received medical and commercial successes for emerging as a novel therapeutic option for many cellular dysfunctional diseases. If data are to be believed, the global market of stem cell therapy had touched an average of $410 million revenues by 2009, and the market was expected to grow double and reached a total of 100 million people in the US.

And due to its numerous medical benefits, medical companies and research institutes want to bring its clinical applications from bench to bedside.

Although open to many controversies and debate, we have enough evidence to prove that therapy is indeed an effective therapeutic application to address a range of diseases, including cosmetic procedures like hair regrowth, skin redefining and etc.

In addition to this, the growing number of cell based clinical trails hold true to the potential for stem cell efficacies and its applications. A recent study as of June 2010 highlighted the capabilities of cell therapies through 2000 (approx.) clinical studies on biomedical research.

While the manipulation of embryonic cells is limited and controversial, a greater chance to develop engineered tissues from iPSC is viable for the medical interventions in serious conditions. And this is the underlying reason, why public and society demand for more clinical trials of stem cell based therapies and their applications in the medical fields.
Having good posture is an important part of remaining healthy. IT helps you avoid back pain and premature wear on your bones, improves lung performance, and much more. In this article, we will explain what good posture is before explaining the many benefits that it provides.

What is good posture?

Posture is the form that your body takes when you are sitting, standing, and laying down. Maintaining "good" posture is positioning your body so there is less strain placed upon your body's muscles and ligaments when in these positions.

It requires your body to be as close to its natural shape as possible. So if you are sitting down, this would mean:

    Keeping your chin up and looking forward
    Keeping your shoulders back (not slouching)
    Bending your knees at a right angle
    Keeping your feet flat on the floor
    Keeping your back straight enough that all 3 natural curves of the spine are present.

Sitting with good posture distributes weight more evenly across your muscle groups - helping you avoid neck, shoulder and back pain. It also allows you to comfortably work for longer periods and avoid some serious long-term health problems.

Having a chair with lumbar support will help you maintain good back posture.

What are the benefits of good posture?

Protects your future health

Having good posture will keep your joints correctly aligned, protecting the joint surfaces from abnormal wear-and-tear. By preventing this type of wear-and-tear, you can lower your risk of various illnesses including arthritis and postural hunchback.

It makes it easier to breathe

The diaphragm is a large muscle that is responsible for respiration. When the diaphragm moves, it changes how much pressure there is within the thorax - causing air to either enter or exit the lungs.

Posture affects breathing because it changes how much room the diaphragm has to move. If you are slouched in a chair or while walking, the diaphragm cannot contract or expand as easily, preventing you from taking deep breaths. As soon as you correct your posture, you will immediately notice how much easier it is to breathe. This is a particularly useful benefit for anyone who has a health condition that affects their breathing.

Can help prevent back pain

Developing good posture can eliminate back pain caused by stressed muscles and poor joint alignment. It does so by actively reducing the strain placed on the muscles and joints by spreading weight across the entire body. This ensures that certain muscles or joints are not overworked or damaged.

Over time, having good posture will even improve the alignment of your spine, which will improve the condition of your back and reduce the risk of back injuries. You will be less likely to suffer from herniated discs, muscle strains or other back problems.

Improved physical performance

Good posture requires the use of more muscle groups. Not only does this reduce the chances of straining a single muscle, it can lead to an improvement in overall physical performance. Having the ability to engage muscles more evenly will help you perform better during daily activities and any sports that you play.

Strengthens the core

If you have already made improvements to your sitting posture, you will have noticed that your abdominal muscles feel more engaged. Your abdominals will be "sharing the load" with your back muscles as they keep your torso stable. The more you improve your posture, the stronger your core will get, thus improving the alignment of your spine, reducing stress on your back muscles, and improving your mobility.

Makes you look more attractive

Have you ever seen an actor or actress on a talk show? Did you notice how impeccable his or her posture was? Actors and actresses concentrate on having good posture because they understand how much it affects their appearance. By sitting tall in their seat and keeping their chin up, they will look much more beautiful or handsome to the viewers at home. You will gain the same benefits as you improve your posture.

Improved digestion of food

Sitting or standing with good posture will ensure your internal organs are in their natural position. This makes it easier for the body to digest food and perform other important functions like maintaining good blood circulation.

Can improve your mood

Researchers from the University of San Francisco have discovered that having good posture can help improve a person's mood. They found that improved posture could also increase energy levels and reduce the risk of mental illnesses like depression.

Improving your posture can deliver some amazing benefits to your health and lifestyle. If you are interested in developing good posture, talk to a chiropractor or general practitioner. You can also use online resources like NHS choices to learn more.

Have you ever noticed a famous actor, known for their good looks, maybe Brad Pitt, standing stooped over? Of course not! Part of the appeal is their tall, proud posture, whether you consciously notice or not. Perhaps that's why no childhood is complete without an occasional reminder to "Sit up straight!" Your mom was training you to become a Hollywood star.

While the desire for your own good posture could be due to the effect that poor posture has on your visual appearance, it may surprise you that posture has much more to do with whether you look proper or sloppy. Let's look at another type of celebrity - a singer such as Adele, and try a little experiment on yourself. Sing your favourite song, or the national anthem with your shoulders rounded forward and head stooped down. Your whole chest caves in and prohibits your lungs from expanding and your voice from belting out those big musical notes. It's much harder to sing properly without good posture. Remember Usain Bolt, the fastest human? Do you think he'd run as fast and place as well if he kept his head down?

If you're concerned with your health you should know that the way you carry your body physically can have a major impact on your physical performance and mental sense of well-being. Studies are now showing the connection between poor posture and health problems ranging from weight gain, insomnia, and even depression and mental decline. Chiropractors are well aware of the significance of this connection between posture and health, which makes them a reliable authority on this and how it relies on good spinal health.

There are many causes of poor posture. In some people, unfortunately postural issues are due to other conditions or diseases that involve bone deformity or bone loss, however, in the vast majority of cases, posture is directly related to a person's habits and daily activities. Here are some of the most common causes of poor posture:

    Looking down a lot during activities such as using a cellphone or playing video games
    Working at a desk or computer for long periods of time (even at a desk with good ergonomics)
    Poor ergonomics at work (chairs, desks, keyboards)
    Improper sleep support (mattress, pillows)
    Muscles weakness
    Poor self-esteem (people with low self-esteem tend to have a flexed/inward posture as a way to avoid being noticed)

As noted, there can be other health conditions and diseases that can contribute to poor posture, but as you can see, most contributors to poor posture are also things that are within your control.

Chiropractors and other health experts have found that people who have a tendency to slouch while standing, sitting, and even walking also tend to experience many kinds of health conditions, which can be mild or even severe. Many health problems such as headaches, muscle stiffness, shortness of breath, susceptibility to infectious illnesses, may actually be indirectly impacted by your posture and the positioning of your spinal column.

Your spine is important because it keeps your entire body in alignment and balance. It also houses and is meant to protect your central nervous system (spinal cord and brain). Your nervous system is responsible for the communication between your body and brain. The better your spinal alignment, the easier it is for your brain and body to share information and maintain good posture. Slouching, and being in poor posture makes it harder for this to happen - signals don't transmit as well and muscles have to work harder to try to keep you upright. This extra, more difficult work can degrade the health of the spine and nervous system over time. When your brain and body need to work harder on your posture, they work less on keeping your other systems and functions working optimally. As this happens to the nervous system, other functions of the body may begin to have trouble working correctly, leading to inflammation, digestive issues, and more.

How To Keep Good Posture All Day Every Day

If you want to avoid these health problems, you'll want to focus on maintaining proper posture as often as you can. It may be as simple as reminding yourself throughout the day to keep your shoulders pulled back, your head held high atop your neck and torso, and your spine in a neutral position as much it can.

If you find it difficult to maintain these positions of proper posture, it is a sign you need the professional help of a chiropractor. Your poor posture can be due to a combination of factors that include poor spinal alignment, poor nervous system signal flow, and muscle weakness. In most cases, these problems can all be corrected with a properly designed and executed plan that addresses all three of these issues as needed.

Do You Have Poor Posture?

Here is a simple test than can be an indicator of poor posture:

    Have someone take a picture of you standing without shoes on a flat surface, looking ahead of you. Think of a side profile of a police mug shot, for your whole body, top to bottom. The person will likely have to stand 10-15 feet away.
    Draw a straight vertical line from the inside of your ear down to the floor. If the line doesn't pass through the middle of your shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, it's likely you have poor posture.

Worrying about your health and trying to keep your health at its top game are genuine concerns. With the growing concerns and rising stress of our daily lives and work, it becomes hard for most people to spend some time with just themselves to keep their health better. Here are some simple tricks and tips to make your life better:

Drink Water: Drinking enough water is one of the best things to do to fix your health. Most people do not drink enough water, and this is why many bodily functions are not performed as they should be. Take care to drink more water during summers and keep your intake of water at a steady level for winters.

Exercise! Exercising does not only mean hitting the gym. It is recommended that fast pace walking during the days and other methods of mild exercise will keep your body at its fittest. Regular exercising offers many benefits - it not only reduces excess body fat but also allows your body to breathe.

Sleeping Well: Messed up sleep cycles are one of the major causes for a bad health during this generation. Although work and other things are important, the sleep of at least 7 to 8 hours is an absolute requirement for your body. Not sleeping enough can cause undue stress on your body and will increase the release of leptin, which is a hunger-stimulating hormone, making you crave foods now and again. Other than this, sleeping on time and for the requisite amount allows your body to rejuvenate and helps your mind work better.

Healthy Diet: Our fast-paced lives have not only hampered our sleep but have messed up our eating habits as well. Keeping track of what you is the best way to start a healthy living. Switch to greens and berries and try to eat as many fruits as possible. Furthermore, a balanced diet should be taken to keep your health at its prime.
At present, there are millions of people across the globe looking for heart transplants. But with a huge shortage of donor, most of these patients don't survive. Growing transplantable hearts in the laboratory is actually a quite old dream within the entire medical community and recently a study published in the journal namely Circulation Research has moved things one step closer to the reality. As mentioned in that study, a team of researchers has become successful in growing a beating human heart in the laboratory from the stem cells.
After that, two teams of scientists have published another study mentioning that it is actually possible to create the main elements of the human cardiovascular system from the pluripotent stem cells. This knowledge is not only important for reproducing the entire cardiovascular system, but also for transplantable and developing tissues to care for the patients with vascular or cardiovascular diseases.

Developing replacement tissues from the stem cells is one of the major goals of biology. In case any damaged part of the body can be restored by the tissue, which genetically matches to the patient, then there is less scope for rejection. So, far, growing the cardiovascular system from stem cells is one of the most complex decisions.

Developing capillaries by using 3D printers:

The scientists of both the Baylor College of Medicine and Rice University are taking the help of 3D printers for developing functioning capillaries. Capillaries are actually thin and tiny blood vessels, which transport blood to the veins from arteries and also make it possible the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and other waste materials between the tissues and blood.

As circulated in the Biomaterials Science journal, the scientists mainly discovered two materials, which coax the endothelial cells obtained from the human stem cell to build up into the formation like capillaries. The scientists also discovered that attaching mesenchymal stem cells to this procedure advanced the scope of the endothelial cells to create tube-like formations that resemble capillaries. Gisele Calderon, the lead author on that study explained the primary findings in the interview with Phys.org.

They also mentioned that these cells are capable of forming the capillary kind of structures both in the semi-synthetic material known as GelMA or gelatin methacrylate and in a natural material known as the fibrin.

Developing functioning arteries:

In another study issued in the PNAS journal, the scientists from the University of Wisconsin Madison and the Morgridge Institute mentioned that they are capable of generating purposeful arterial endothelial cells that line up the interior parts of the human arteries.

To do this, the team used a lab technique known as the single-call RNA ordering to find all the important factors of signaling, which coax the human pluripotent stem cells for developing into the arterial endothelial cells. After that, the scientists took the help of Cas9/CRISPR gene editing technology for developing arterial "reporter cell lines" that lights up like the Christmas trees while candidate factors become successful to build up "reporter stem cells" to build up into the arterial endothelial cells.

By making use of this two-step theory, scientists managed to generate cells, which displayed most of the features and functions of the arterial endothelial cells available in the body. Additionally, while these cells were transplanted into mouse and has an illness heart attack, these cells aided to create new arteries while improving the rate of survival of that mice.

In the interview with Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, James Thompson- the senior author on the study explained the importance of their findings. As per him, the main goal of the team was to apply the improved process of cell derivation to form functional arteries, which can, therefore, be applied in cardiovascular surgery. This experiment works as an important proof the scientists have ultimately gotten a reliable resource for the functional arterial endothelial cells, which help the arteries to behave and perform like as the real thing.

The mention of stem cell therapy is guaranteed to draw horrified reactions from those who know nothing about the subject. Most of us have been informed that stem cells are harvested from a human embryo which is destroyed in the process. But the fact is that these therapies as practiced with resounding success in Germany, Mexico, and Panama, are based on the use of adult stem cells harvested from the patient's own bone marrow and blood. There is a very good reason for this, far removed from the ethical constrictions revolving around fetal cells. For the most practical of considerations, fetal stem cells are very poor weapons against any disorder in that they are excellent producers of their own disease - cancer. Fetal cells divide so rapidly, that the risk of cancer is very high, making them largely unsuitable for therapeutic uses.


The list of diseases formerly thought to be incurable, and now being routinely cured with this therapy is impressive and extensive:

The theoretical justification for the approach to adult stem cell therapy is based on solid science. All human life begins with an ovum and a sperm. Cells then arise in the fertilized ovum, which after a few days in the womb develop into embryonic stem cells. These cells are very unspecialized and possess the ability to develop into all of the 220 human cell types. A whole human being cannot develop from these cells as they are. They need to continue their development in the womb until they change into mature, differentiated cells which then take over a specific function of the body.

Throughout our lives however, we have cells that remain very unspecialized. The renewal of our skin, for example, is an ongoing process and continues until we die. Injuries heal. Hair grows. We live with cells which are very unspecialized, can continue to divide as we go through life and help our body to regenerate and repair itself. These are the cells used in adult stem cell therapy. Adult cells have been, and continue to be found in just about every body tissue; the hair, the brain, the liver, the blood, the bone marrow, etc. If body tissue is damaged, these stem cells flock to the damaged area to repair it. This provides the body with its own repair system, and modern therapy is meant to exploit this process.


This is not to say that it's all roses without the thorns. The mechanism that causes stem cells to perform their magic is a long way from being understood. While many patients enjoy dramatic improvement, and even cures, the identical treatment will have no effect on others. So it all becomes a gamble and points up the need for a great deal of further research. The messengers that implement the healing process have not been identified. The relationship of a patient's age to the number and quality of available stem cells continues to be a mystery.

Especially important for diseases that appear later in life is the question of cell viability and their ability to divide. At what point have the stem cells exhausted their healing power? Would early preventive withdrawal be beneficial? And then of course, there remains the question of handling and dealing with the embryonic stem cell controversy while continuing the vital research needed here.

Recognizing the critical need for advanced research in this important area, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, in August 2009, awarded nearly seven million dollars in multi-year grants to the University of California at Davis for R&D of adult stem cell therapies. With more than 125 scientists and physicians on its faculty, UC Davis has commenced constructing a new Institute for Regenerative Cures in Sacramento and the prospect of cures for many incurable diseases continues to come closer to reality.

In biotechnology, protein mammalian expressions refer to the method of transfecting genes into bovines to create fully folded proteins. End clients can either culture their own monoclonal antibodies through various cell types (hybridomas, human cell lines, CHO, etc.), or they could partner with contract manufacturing organizations that can deliver loads of recombinant proteins from a good range of sources.

Pros of using bovine protein expressions

The presence of post gene modifications is seen to produce the highest functionality. The resulting recombinant proteins can further be modified through post-transnational procedures on the bovine cells. Cycotoxic Antibody Conjugates through mammalian expression are also found to be most compatible to humans. In the same vein, they also have very low immunogenicity as well as high immunity to human pathogens. In short, they are very safe for human use. All these factors mean that the path toward getting permission from regulatory bodies is much easier when you go through the mammalian expression route.

The cons of mammalian expression

Unfortunately, no method is perfect. This is particularly true with recombinant proteins where integration with various cell types can produce various results along with their ensuing consequences. In the case of bovine expression, it's quite difficult to initiate transfection of gene of interest into the bovine cell. Also, extracting a single clone is a very laborious process when you compare it to the other expression methods such as bacteria, insect cell, yeast, eukaryotic using plants, and cell-free systems. These are just some of the contributing factors why the production rate using mammalian expression is still low. And this is the reason why protein culture and producing monoclonal antibodies using bovine expression is quite costly. To bypass the very time-consuming process, biotech companies can partner with contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) that can deliver their requirements.

Choosing CMOs

Admittedly, the sheer number of CMOs out there makes it difficult to choose the ideal partner. A good tip is to look at biologic manufacturing companies that earn the respect of their peers and experts. The CMO must be able to deliver solutions even with the most complicated problems presented to it, covering a whole gamut of services including Biobetters, biosimilars, cell line development and cell banking, transgenics, GMP manufacturing, bioconjugation, aseptic fill and finish, and consulting services. A good way to start is at the top, meaning you choose from the winners of the annual CMO Leadership Awards by Life Science Leaders magazine.

The stem cell research debate has spanned numerous decades, with presidents like George HW Bush, Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush rejecting funding science that tampered with human embryos, and presidents like Bill Clinton and Barack Obama appropriating money toward an end that justifies the means. If a primitive bundle of cells can be used to save thousands or millions of lives and alleviate suffering, then is it worth it? Or does embryonic stem cell research cross the line between man and God?

When does human life begin? This is the quintessential theological question behind embryonic stem cell research. Devout Catholics and Protestants will tell you, "Human life begins at conception, at the very moment when sperm and egg come together. Development from there on out should be left up to God and God only." They argue the problem is that embryos are killed in the process of harvesting stem cells, therefore aborting the developing embryo.

In a speech on August 9, 2001, former President George W. Bush explained, "While we must devote enormous energy to conquering disease, it is equally important that we pay attention to the moral concerns raised by the new frontier of human embryo stem cell research. Even the most noble ends do not justify any means." Pope Benedict XVI went so far as to say human stem cell research was "not only devoid of the light of God but also devoid of humanity."

The Iranian position on embryonic stem cell research is that it's a necessary and common pathway to medical discovery. According to the Koran, human life begins at Day 120, when the embryo is blessed with a soul, so the fetal stem cells being derived when the embryo is less than two weeks' old is of little moral concern to them. In a letter to a scientist, Ayatollah Khamenei commended the pursuit of "lofty objectives," predicting "huge humanitarian wealth." He did, however, caution against producing identical parts of human beings, which would be considered cloning, which is rejected in Iranian culture.

Lawyers may argue either for or against stem cell research. They can argue that stem cells cannot develop into humans outside of the uterus or that these spare embryos are routinely destroyed by flushing them down the drain, incineration or leaving them out to perish; so why not use these extra embryos to save lives?

Yet they may also argue that these embryos can be adopted, rather than destroyed, or that embryonic stem cell research is senseless murder. This complex argument may become null and void if adult stem cells can be effectively harvested and reverted back to their primal state, although it may take years before the process is fully perfected.

Stem therapy is the newly discovered kind of treatment known to be more effective than the other treatments available today. We have heard and read a lot of testimonials from televisions and internet on how effective stem treatment to their ailments. But we are not that sure if they are telling us the truth or they are being used by businessmen for publicity to make them earn big profit from this latest medical craze. In this world run by economic system and confusing order of laws we are becoming confuse on which is which, what is real from not and which is the right choice to take for ourselves. In this article we are going to tackle the pros and cons of the most debated part of medical advancement which centers on stems.

Stem cell information is very significant to us in order to dig deeper and fathom the issues associating stem therapy. Human body is made up of cells that function to different parts of the body. Cells are microscopic matters, their performance inside is a big factor on how our body in general performs. They are like human too; they have life stages, life span and susceptible to infections. Cells act like a driver and human is the car; when they are sick they might bump the car and as a human we will set sick as well.

Stem cells help the formation of human inside the womb from a simple zygote to fetus. What differ stems from the other are they are young, active group of cells and capable to replicate in an enormous level. They are present to all living organisms with cellular structure. Here we can imagine what significant roles stems are playing to our body. They are used in the latest medical remedy which is the stem treatments.

Autism stem treatments are products of medical diversities utilizing stems. Autism is incurable and there is no known cure to completely eradicate autism but medicines to at least mitigate their restrictive behaviors and increase physical independence are now available. stem treatments are an answer to all patients who are suffering from the dreaded diseases like cancer and tumors. Its advantage has surpassed the very expensive kind of treatments that do not assure healing. From the given facts we can therefore conclude that stems help.

Stem therapy has disadvantage to which centers not really on its effectiveness but by the availability of their sources like embryo. Embryonic stem is the most effective and sought after of all stem lines because they can become different cells specialized for different organs of the body. This fact is what made stem research hated and criticized as this includes interruption of life formation. Adult stems will create cells only to a specific organ. Another disadvantage of stem treatment is its accessibility, for now there are few medical institutions offering stem treatment.Finding out the details is the intelligent way to form an opinion, right?

The natural peptide hormone known better as the human growth hormone or for short, HGH is the main human stimulation of the human cell reproduction and growth hormone. It is the pituitary gland that secretes the very vital Human Growth Hormone that helps the growth of children to get them to their adulthood and slightly beyond. When we are young, it is the human growth hormone's natural dispersion of this specific growth hormone that will continue until approximately the mid-thirties.

After the mid-thirties or so, the body's natural human growth hormone secretion will finally begin to decrease. Now you may ask yourself, "Why is this truly so bad, since by the age of our thirties we are already grown?" But this is a vital problem of the body's natural major decreasing human growth hormone supplement. Since HGH has also been crucially connected to our human body's youthfulness, this has HGH also very important after the age of our thirties.

The anti-aging results were proven as far back as the year of 1990, and have been giving wonderful human anti-aging results ever since.  The increase of the Human Growth Hormone that can be given today in several variations of applications are proving over and over to be a vital part of several different areas in holding onto our youth within our bodies and of the outer looks too.

Not only has muscle mass, oxygen consumption, mental alertness, physical energy, bone density, a decrease in body fats, increased sexual stimulation, but even a better memory and a improving increase in better overall eye vision have been shown to come from the increase of the normally naturally made human growth hormone that once was made by our bodies. When the human growth hormone that has began to be used by those over the mid-thirties to the early forties, there are also mood improvements that can vastly increase the youthful feelings.

HGH can be taken in several different ways such as a pill form, Human Growth Hormone shots, and even a topical human growth hormone cream. But along with the older generational improvements that HGH can perform, there is the vital help that HGH has been proven to give to those of the younger ages that are unfortunately deficient such as children. Some of these deficiencies are for children that are deformed in height, children with failure to the kidney, children with the syndrome of Prader-Willi, children that have Turner's Syndrome and those with the muscle degeneration that is directly associated with the disease of AIDS or HIV.

Travel! Just controlling what you are eating and exercising is not enough. Socialising more and traveling from place to place regularly can greatly help to boost your health. This will allow you to get rid of your pent-up stress and will allow you to relax. In some cases, it may even release your body's happy hormones that will keep you and your mind healthy.

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